The History associated with Sebewaing, Michigan Sugar Factory

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The guys destined to become listed on the ranks of Michigan’s pioneer sugar barons was John C. Liken. He had been nearly 70 yrs old once the concept hit him and currently rich beyond the goals he probably had when he carved barrel staves for an income as an indigent immigrant in ny over fifty years previously. By 1900, he operated a big company in a little city that described him given that city parent because their enterprise developed the tasks that brought individuals to the town.

Their yearly product sales throughout the years preceding 1900, in modern terms, equated to about $7.5 million. In a combination of companies that employed 200 folks, he operated four saw mills primarily engaged in manufacturing barrel staves, some of which he delivered to Germany, two flour mills, a significant store for equipment, dry products, groceries, and medicines which in 1884 employed nine clerks.

Liken’s companies were based in a little city in Michigan’s “thumb”. Town was Sebewaing, a little number of austere houses nestled on the eastern coast associated with Saginaw Bay some twenty-five miles northeast of Bay City. Its residents were day laborers just who worked at among Liken’s organizations or on one associated with surrounding facilities, or fished when you look at the great Saginaw Bay that lapped the shores within hiking distance associated with city.

Sebewaing borrowed its name from the Chippewa word for crooked creek plus some of the wealth from the plentiful fishing when you look at the bay. Not long prior to the 19th century stumbled on a detailed, nearby woodlands fell to swift axes, making area for German settlers just who rapidly go about the twin jobs of removing stumps and planting crops.

Liken, an indigenous of Lower Saxony in northwestern Germany met Wallburga Kunkle, the woman that would become their spouse, in Binghamton, ny. She was a native of Bavaria and bore title of a canonized nun just who traveled to Germany from The united kingdomt in 748 to execute great works. St. Wallburga became the patron saint of plagues, famines and many other discomforts, including puppy bites. John Liken had arrived in Binghamton after employed by their passageway aboard a sailing vessel.

After the birth of these 4th child, Emma, in 1864, just who joined up with her siblings, Mary, produced in 1856, Hannah produced in 1858, and Charles, produced in 1859, John and Walburga relocated your family to Sebewaing, a Lutheran settlement that has been attracting anglers, farmers and timber guys. Town’s populace upon their arrival in 1865 was insufficient to proclaim it a village, but with the arrival of John Liken, that has been about to change. He established a sawmill in which he made barrel staves. Later on, he would develop stores, a creamery, granaries, and boats, incorporating within one person a source for all the products or services needed by the local agriculture neighborhood. The ointment and crops, he put on boats and delivered some thirty miles along the Saginaw Bay shoreline to Bay City, a bustling and growing city where day-to-day need for groceries expanded apace using its burgeoning populace. In was at this link, delivery, he became familiar with ship owner Captain Benjamin Boutell plus it was through Captain Boutell he would understand sugar options.

The hamlet expanded into a town together with city folk started to think of Liken given that city parent. Having brought two daughters and a boy in to the neighborhood, just who like their parent were most of great form, a healthy body, and great cheer, it wasn’t unforeseen that the Likens started to include substantially into populace. Mary took for a husband, Richard Martini and some years later on, Hannah permitted a youthful Christian Bach to make her head (In subsequent times, Christian adopted their middle name, Fred as their offered name of preference. He appears when you look at the Michigan sugar chronicles written by Daniel Gutleben as C.F. Bach.) Charles and his spouse, Elizabeth settled in to the neighborhood to use handling of their dad’s matters.

John Liken had departed their Oldenburg residence on age eighteen after doing a four-year apprenticeship when you look at the cooperage trade. However have known of sugar beets because of that knowledge and undoubtedly would-have-been conscious that guys from their homeland was indeed taking pleasure in some success together with them in Michigan’s Bay County in which three production facilities were then functioning plus one more was underway yet another was under building in Saginaw.

Altogether, a complete of eleven beet production facilities would soon put sugar and profits into Michigan cities if a person thought the hoopla created by railroads among others that would benefit from the building of production facilities. The excitement that had been stirring farmers and investors throughout the state seeped into Sebewaing. Liken saw you don’t need to drum-up assistance by the usual practices, keeping city conferences, enlisting editors of local newspapers, employing bands and front guys to call upon the farmers. He had been persuaded associated with need for a beet sugar factory and because a great part of the neighborhood wealth resided inside the coffers, he saw you don’t need to sway other individuals to use the main cause. The Likens possessed sufficient resources to build a factory.

He formed an advertisement hock committee consisting of their boy Charles, Richard Henry Martini, the spouse of their child Hannah, and child Mary’s spouse, Christian Fred Bach. All three had held important positions in Liken’s companies for several years and all sorts of were inside their belated 30’s, therefore steeped in knowledge. Besides, the three resided close to the other person on Center Street in Sebewaing, with Martini at quantity 69, Charles nearby at 68, and Bach at quantity 67, therefore the trio could convene at leisure and without formality. Should he and his committee approve the concept, the master plan would move forward minus the usual purchase of stock to neighborhood users. It didn’t require a great amount of research for the committee. That they had many arable land at their disposal. The Liken family members managed a thousand acres by themselves account that along with other individuals, removed a necessity for a rail range to share beets to a factory situated on Lake Huron’s coast. That they had the monetary capability.

John C. was indeed large. All of their daughters and his boy liked full time servants inside their houses and every was sufficiently off to purchase the brand new sugar business by themselves account and every had shown managerial ability over a lengthy duration. That they had every feature required for success when you look at the new industry save one…experience in sugarbeets. Information associated with activity in Liken’s headquarters leaked in to the neighborhood at-large and prompted some farmers to grow beets, although a completed factory was nearly couple of years as time goes on. Those beets, when prepared for market, were shipped to Bay City for handling.

Thinking to add the missing ingredient to an otherwise perfect equation for success, John Liken welcomed Benjamin Boutell and some of their respected buddies to become listed on when you look at the undertaking. For that reason, very quickly Liken discovered first-hand, how the camel’s nostrils beneath the tent fable came into existence. Boutell, no doubt pleased that their expertise was at greater demand than their money, rapidly enlisted guys of wealth and knowledge. One of them was John Ross, that would soon become treasurer associated with German-American Sugar business, the final of four beet sugar production facilities built in Bay County. Next, emerged lumbermen Frederick Woodworth, William Smalley and William Penoyar, and a ship owner known as William Sharp. Whenever guys associated with stature of Ben Boutell and Penoyar signaled their attention, the floodgates exposed; more guys of wealth clamored for a stake when you look at the new business. A pair of Saginaw attorneys Watts S. Humphrey and Thomas Harvey climbed aboard as performed George B. Morley, renowned whole grain dealership and banker. Rasmus Hanson, a wealthy lumberman from Grayling, and future president associated with German-American Sugar business, purchased in since performed William H. Wallace, a quarry operator in nearby Bay Port.

Unknowingly, Liken in attracting investors from Saginaw and Bay City, brought collectively two distinct teams that could be referred to as two split sectors of influence. Boutell’s circle consisted of Bay County investors, Woodworth, Ross, Smalley, Sharp and Penoyar. George Morley’s circle included James MacPherson, Humphrey, Harvey, and William H. Wallace, all Saginaw residents, although Wallace was a native of nearby Port Hope along with been a permanent resident of Bay Port, a village snugging the shoreline thirteen miles northeast of Sebewaing. Within the wings was Ezra Rust, a wealthy Saginaw resident who’d won a lot of money when you look at the lumber industry. While all Bay County investors had lumber interests, associated with Saginaw team just MacPherson had a lumber back ground. Both sectors would use the sport of in-fighting after the new business got underway.

Representatives of what amounted to three distinct teams, Boutell’s Bay City contingent, Morley’s Saginaw faction, and John Liken’s family members, collected in Watts Humphrey’s Saginaw company in July 1901 to use the problem of business. Humphrey’s popularity would come maybe not from sugarbeet handling but from the proven fact that their then 12-year old boy, George M. Humphrey, would one-day attain stature given that Secretary associated with Treasury under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, offering from 1953 until 1957.

Wasting no time at all, the organizers had in front of you, four associates of building firms devoted to building beet handling production facilities. They certainly were Fuehrman & Hapke, E. H. Dyer, Kilby Manufacturing, and Oxnard Construction. It was anticipated that the moment the shares were taken on by the attendees, a contract could be granted to 1 associated with four bidders. To Benjamin Boutell and his Bay City team, there clearly was only one quote of every interest for them hence was the one from Kilby Manufacturing for $900,000. The purchase price was a hefty $1,500 per ton of beet slicing ability, nearly double the $850 per ton price associated with Essexville factory and very nearly $600 more per ton than the price for German-American Sugar business factory that has been at this time under building. Oxnard’s quote of a little over $1,800 per ton (including, as usual, a Steffens procedure) and Dyer’s beside the lowest quote of $1,416 per ton were outdone out by Fuehrman & Hapke’s winning quote of $1,320 per ton for a complete price of $792,000.

The first order of company called for the election of officer and administrators, a generally placid affair once the business founders understood the other person along with performed the gathering in Humphrey’s company. Representatives of every associated with three main shareholder teams guaranteed positions. Bay City lumberman, W. C. Penoyar was given the presidency, while Sebewaing’s Christian Bach took on the vice-presidency, together with Saginaw team saw William Baker and Thomas Harvey took the secretary and treasurer chairs. Benjamin Boutell and William Wallace joined up with the exec committee. Near the top of the schedule was the problem of choosing the winning quote for factory’s building, which would be, as usual, a complete turnkey procedure. Which is once the short-term alliance between Bay City, Huron County, and Saginaw County investors fractured.

Boutell’s crowd, said the reduced quote made no difference, they’d take none other than the one submitted by Kilby. Into the Saginaw team, this was tantamount to attracting a line when you look at the sand. They thought securely in awarding the agreement into lowest bidder. Properly, the Sebewaing-Saginaw associates just who managed three associated with officer positions, ignoring the reality that Boutell and his buddies managed 45 % associated with business hence a part of these faction just guaranteed the presidency, provided the nod to Fuehrman & Hapke. Boutell and business recoiling from the recommendation that anybody except Kilby would build a factory in which they’d spent, terminated their stock subscriptions, resigned their positions and withdrew from the board of administrators.

Whenever dust settled, Boutell and his co-investors were out together with Saginaw contingent held the controlling interest at 55 % with control divided between your Morley and Rust people. The Rust family members headed by Ezra Rust would leave its mark on the town of Saginaw in the form of a city playground and a significant thoroughfare bearing its name. Ezra’s confidence when you look at the sugar industry may have stemmed from a stint he served as an engineer in a Cuban sugar mill during their youth. Morley held 5,000 shares inside the very own name, while various people in the Rust family members held 4,000 shares. Members of the family and buddies of John Liken held 45 %.

The unexpected withdrawal of Bay City investors necessitated an extra election. The presidency went along to Thomas Harvey. John Liken’s son-in-law, Christian Bach, retained the vice-president’s post and a seat on manager’s dining table. Liken’s boy, Charles, accepted a consultation as treasurer but didn’t win a board chair. William F. Schmitt, a small stockholder and Christian Bach’s sis Emma’s suitor, became secretary. Eventually and after having been tested by fire, he would show that their development was owed entirely to their skill, not to their relationship into Bach family members. In 1906, he took fee associated with Sebewaing factory which he then led for six years before leaving the business for a senior place with Continental Sugar business. Directors, as well as Harvey and Christian Bach, included William H. Wallace, Watts Humphrey, George Morley, James MacPherson, just who changed Benjamin Boutell, and Richard Martini.

The appointed specialist for factory’s building, Henry Theodore Julius Fuehrman, ordinarily addressed as Jules, came from ny in which he’d constructed an equivalent factory at Lyons and before that, Pekin, Illinois. He starred in September for groundbreaking ceremony. With him was their lover, Theodore Hapke just who won large respect from area farmers of German removal because of their knowledge of sugarbeets and his capacity to explain the topic when you look at the mother tongue.

Fuehrman was indeed closely a part of the building of a beet factory in Grand Island, Nebraska, which to their fortune were when you look at the place after Germany he labeled as residence. He had been the only real boy of Henry and Tulia Fuehrman of Brunswick, Germany. Beginning on age fourteen, he served an apprenticeship when you look at the mason’s trade. After choosing to prepare himself for obligations of an architect, he devoted himself into research of structure in various polytechnic organizations throughout their indigenous land. Whenever two decades old, he joined the Germany Army, offering twelve months, and in 1882, he emigrated to The united states in which after spending couple of years in Chicago he settled in Grand Island. Indeed there he accepted many commissions, like the design associated with city hallway, a church, a university, and finally the Oxnard beet sugar factory in Grand Island.

Fuehrman’s success attracted the prestigious architectural firm of article & McCord, the firm that built the roof over Madison Square Garden together with huge iron frames for skyscrapers that dotted Broadway and Wall Street and in 1931 would construct society’s tallest skyscraper, the Empire State Building. Post & McCord partnered utilizing the equally prestigious United states Bridge business, therefore the Sebewaing factory’s development was destined is of solid building. With William H. Wallace offering on the board of administrators, the question of if the foundation would be produced of solid rocks and/or new building material, tangible, was remedied without conversation. The rocks came from Wallace’s quarry, thirteen miles remote in which these were carved by their expert workmen into squares that conformed into architect’s specs. Broken rock from the same supply made roadways for hauling equipment and soon after, beets into factory. Already the community was enjoying the fresh fruits associated with presence of a sugar factory, improved roads and a richer economic climate as workers found gainful employment on the many work teams had a need to fashion a factory that will soon win recognition among the largest of the type when you look at the nation.

Emile Brysselbout, Fuehrman and Hapke’s latest lover, has also been available. Brysselbout’s qualifications included the recently constructed Charlevoix, Michigan sugarbeet factory in which he had monitored the building associated with Essexville factory.

The foundation was laid on October 21, 1901 although lack of qualified engineers delayed building. Experienced building engineers had become a premium in a nation that instantly cannot have enough beet sugar production facilities. Twenty-five beet sugar production facilities were constructed between 1900 and 1905 that ten were in Michigan. Adding to the problems was Fuehrman’s absence. He’d departed for Dresden, Ontario to construct an equivalent factory for Captain James Davidson, a Bay City magnate who’d decided to dedicate a portion of their wealth into beet industry.

By appearances, Davidson’s agreement held greater value for Fuehrman than performed Sebewaing’s. William Wallace, noted for constantly taking a strong hand in which an individual was needed, approached Brysselbout utilizing the insistence that Joseph Eckert be hired. Eckert was a guy with a can-do reputation plus one that would tolerate no obstacles when you look at the road to their objective. Eckert had just done an assignment at Mendall Bialy’s West Bay City Sugar business in which he’d increased productivity over one-third.

Gutleben relates that when Eckert arrived in Sebewaing, he discovered nature busy on task of reclaiming the site. Weeds and wild blossoms occupied the room designed for a factory. The couple of columns that had been erected on Wallace’s rock fundamentals were poised as if prepared to fall to planet. Even worse, there clearly was no equipment available to fix the steelwork set up or even put in the total amount of it. Fuehrman guaranteed a steam engine but its distribution will have to wait until the metallic erection work with Dresden was done. It was April. The farmers wanted to determine if they should grow a beet crop. “grow ’em!” exclaimed Eckert just who then put an order for distribution of a steam engine is recharged against Fuehrman & Hapke’s account. Wallace backed the credit. Fuehrman’s complexion turned along with of spoiled liver during their after that visit; he fired their innovative professional for insubordination. Wallace followed by Brysselbout turned your choice around in a hurried interviewing Fuehrman.

The features of having Brysselbout and Eckert on staff was their ability to draw guys of similar skill. Brysselbout, prompted by Eckert’s enthusiasm and unquestioned part as chief task professional after Fuehrman’s failed work to fire him, guaranteed experienced and highly informed operators, guys like Hugo Peters, an 1898 graduate of Leipzig University that would become Sebewaing’s very first factory superintendent. James Dooley soon adopted. He transported a reputation for request of systematic maxims and a cool head during emergencies. Eckert attracted outstanding engineers particularly Eugene Stoeckly and Pete Kinyon, a master at erecting the take grids that became the frames for production facilities. Nearby farmers, long experienced with next-door neighbors William Wallace, “Bill” to all, and John Liken, both hard driving can-do company leaders, had complete confidence that a factory would stand in their midst at collect time, as assured. They go about growing the 2nd sugarbeet crop in Huron County with results that will show fortuitous on their own and also for the investors.

Whenever trees started to blaze red and orange and cool dawn breezes dried the early morning dew before farmers stepped from their doors, the county’s very first sugarbeet crop waited in nice soldiery rows for men, women as well as children to approach them. A lifter, a computer device designed to loosen the beet from planet’s hold, managed by the farmer, would proceed throughout the industry at a walking speed. Harvesters would follow, pulling the beets from the floor then knocking two of them collectively to loosen soils and then casting them into a pile to await topping. Ultimately, computerized motor-driven machines would perform the duty, a task enhanced by pre-topping and then cleaning associated with beets via a shaking system and dumped into waiting trucks. However for today, it was brute work.

On October 10, 1902, it was done. The key building sixty-seven by 258 legs and five floors comprising approximately sixty thousand square feet, made of brick and filled with the absolute most modern equipment offered to the, exposed for company. In a town where normal residence consisted of less than seven-hundred square feet of area, it was an incredible presence. It was the grandest and largest structures constructed when you look at the United states Midwest up to the period.

It was agreed that only one man in all of Huron County deserved the honor of delivering the very first load of beets into factory, the guy whoever dream set off the string of events that led to the magnificent building today standing after the town’s main street. He had been John C. Liken. Their family members had collected circular 8 weeks before on August 9, to commemorate their seventieth birthday and today at an age beyond whatever guys commonly set aside for cessation of actual labor, he led a team of four horses attracting a gaily decorated wagon full of sugarbeets onto the scales. The Liken family members, standing beside the constructors, Bill Wallace and a contingent from Saginaw, applauded the advance associated with high-stepping horses together with contented Mr. Liken. In the few days, Hugo Peter carried out an operational test, enabling just liquid through factory to try the readiness along with the equilibrium associated with equipment. After making several changes to fix weaknesses detected throughout the liquid test, he ordered the slicing of beets to begin with on October 27.

The farmers delivered beets containing 13.23 % sugar that they harvested nearly seven tons into acre. According to Gutleben’s record, the factory yielded over 91,000 hundredweight of sugar on a removal price of seventy-one percent giving it comes back greater than from the West Bay City’s factory, the Essexville factory, the Bay City Sugar business and undoubtedly Benton Harbor, Kalamazoo, together with very first year of procedure on Caro factory. The working results mirrored those associated with Kilby built Alma factory. Monetary results, but were much better as the 48,250 a great deal of beets delivered by Sebewaing growers surpassed by two-hundred 50 % the 19,100 tons delivered by Alma growers for the factory’s very first campaign. Sebewaing growers delivered the best few beets brought to an individual factory until the period, noisy evidence of the confidence Huron County farmers placed in Wallace, Liken, and Bach, confidence, as events disclosed, that has been maybe not misplaced. Estimated profits for Sebewaing’s very first year of procedure approximated $140,000, 26 % on product sales and offering a 17 % return on investment.

Quickly, two important personages representing the United states Sugar Refining business labeled as on Bill Wallace. They certainly were Henry Niese, head of operations and W. B. Thomas from the organization’s treasury department (Thomas would become president of United states Sugar Refining on December 20, 1907 after the death of Henry O. Havemeyer previously that month.). Their particular mission would be to scout prospects for entry into Sugar Trust. The visit occasioned a substantial change in their make-up when Charles B. Warren, a Detroit lawyer just who represented the interests associated with United states Sugar Refining business came shortly afterward to supply an investment of $325,000. The business granted yet another thirty-five thousand shares of stock that he obtained 32,500; other shareholders each increased their share by approximately 8.3 %, effectively giving Warren a 50 % fascination with the business utilizing the spouse in the possession of associated with Liken family members (24 %) and Morley’s Saginaw investors (26 %).

The bloom of youth however graced the cheeks of Charles Beecher Warren when he starred in Sebewaing like a godsend to drop what would amount to in present dollars nearly seven million dollars in a start-up business managed entirely by local investors. Their youth disguised a man bearing a sound knowledge and a steely resolve which will make one thing of himself. Before their time passed, he would end up being the United States ambassador to two nations (Japan in 1921 and Mexico in 1924), write the regulations for conscription during World War I, head a significant lawyer and direct the matters of many corporations.

In 1903 when seeing Sebewaing, but he resembled not really much the energy agent and recognized attorney he would become but instead, a pleasant child with a pocket packed with cash. He had been fresh from Saginaw in which he persuaded the owners of the Carrollton factory to just take their money in exchange for a 60 % share when you look at the factory that came into existence when Boutell’s Bay City crowd parted business utilizing the Sebewaing investors. However, during the period of many years, dispense over three and half million dollars in Michigan alone ($60 million in present dollars) while acquiring sugar companies that will instantly report to the New York company associated with United states Sugar Refining Company-not harmful to a person who was indeed taking spaces in a boarding residence situated near Cass Avenue in Detroit in 1900.

Their increase to energy started six years early in the day when he was appointed associate advice for United States government in hearings prior to the combined large percentage when you look at the Bering water conflict with Great Britain. The situation involved The united kingdomt’s identified directly to harvest seals notwithstanding the usa viewpoint that extinction would clearly follow that rehearse. By 1900, he was somebody when you look at the lawyer of Shaw, Warren, Cady & Oakes a Detroit firm representing many financial institutions and manufacturing firms, main included in this the American Sugar Refining business. A couple of years for this reason, he would adopt the name of president of Michigan Sugar business, a posture he would hold for 19 years aside from the presidency of a sugar business in Iowa and another in Minnesota. Throughout that same time period he gone back to the international arena once more in which their very carefully seen overall performance won awards from imminent lawyers in Europe and The united states. Now, he showed up on the behalf of the usa prior to the Hague tribunal to eliminate a dispute between your United States and The united kingdomt regarding North Atlantic fishing liberties.

The boy of a little city paper editor, Robert Warren, he indexed Bay City as their birthplace, but because of the nature of their dad’s career, relocated every so often while growing up, constantly within Michigan. He graduated very first from Albion university then attended and graduated from the University of Michigan before attending the Detroit university of Law in which he graduated LL.B. In the Detroit university of Law, he studied under Don. M. Dickenson and then joined up with Dickenson’s firm when he was admitted into club in 1893, the year he graduated. A couple of years later on, he joined up with John C. Shaw and William B Cady in arranging a separate lawyer, a strong he would eventually go throughout their career. In early stages, displaying an awareness associated with worth of macro management, he tended to see into installing experienced supervisors and then leave them unmolested while they performed the afternoon to-day demands of carrying out company.

Much as Caro served as a training floor for factory operators, Sebewaing acted as a college for factory supervisors who had been sent throughout The united states to beet and cane production facilities had by United states Sugar Refining business among others. Hugo Peters moved on to Dresden to oversee James Davidson’s procedure and then took similar positions in Idaho, Utah, Ca as well as the West Indies. In 1920, Peters turned their awareness of spectro-photometric evaluation for United States Bureau of Standards, making serious efforts to color evaluation. Jim Dooley stayed on as manager at Sebewaing for some years then headed operations for many of Michigan Sugar business with regards to came into existence in 1906. Wilfred Van Duker, Sebewaing’s very first main chemist, devoted the bigger part of their career to enhancing cane milling in Hawaii. Indeed there, he eventually managed four sugar estates. Richard Henry Martini became General Agricultural Superintendent for Michigan Sugar business and Henry Pety moved on to Utah for a superintendency before returning to Michigan to handle the Mount Pleasant factory. The Sebewaing factory proceeded to grow by the addition of actual structures and equipment in the form of diffusion towers, computerized matters that changed the older battery operations, evaporators, modern centrifugals, storage containers as well as other equipment that caused the day-to-day beet slicing ability to gradually increase from 600 tons per day to over 5,000 tons per day.

Sources:

Estimated profits for very first year of procedure: registers didn’t survive. The writer determined approximately profit by applying approximately price tag of $5.12 for each a hundred pounds into complete hundredweight on sale and then deducted expenses estimated at$3.57 per a hundred pounds.

GUTTLEBEN, Daniel, The Sugar Tramp – 1954 p. 182 regarding acquisition of sugar production facilities by the Sugar Trust, p. 177 regarding business of Sebewaing Sugar and operating results, imprinted by Bay Cities Duplicating business, San Francisco, Ca

MICHIGAN ANNUAL REPORTS, Michigan Archives, Lansing, Michigan:
Sebewaing Sugar 1903, 1904
Sebewaing Lumber, 1901, 1904
Bay Port Fish, 1901

Saginaw Courier Herald, July 11, 1901 – reporting on the meeting of stockholders associated with newly created Sebewaing Sugar business.

Portrait and biographical record of Huron County:
John C. Liken, Christian F. Bach, Richard Martini

U.S. Census reports for Sebewaing, 1900, 1910

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Supply by Thomas Mahar

 

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